[citation needed]. This policy aimed to break down authority in Anatolia by separating the Sultan, its government, and pitting Christians (Greece and Republic of Armenia, Armenians of Cilicia) against Muslims. — К.: Політ. The house of the parliament was under the shadow of the British battalion stationed at Constantinople. During the conference, the British troops in Constantinople were preparing for a Kemalist attack. Kate Fleet, Suraiya Faroqhi, Reşat Kasaba: Σειρά Μεγάλες Μάχες: Μικρασιατική Καταστροφή (Νο 8), συλλογική εργασία, έκδοση περιοδικού Στρατιωτική Ιστορία, Εκδόσεις Περισκόπιο, Αθήνα, Νοέμβριος 2002, σελίδα 64. It was supposed to nullify the Armenian activities on the eastern border, which was reflected in the Treaty of Sèvres as a succession of regions named Wilsonian Armenia. The National Movement—which persuaded the Ottoman Chamber of Deputies to declare the "National Pact" against the occupying Allies–prompted the British government to take action. Eponimo e fondatore dello Stato e della dinastia ottomana fu ‛Othman, che costituì in Bitinia un principato, estendendolo fino a conquistare Bursa nel 1326. He managed to stay one step ahead of the British Foreign Office. Si fece allora più vivace il moto riformatore per ottenere una costituzione di tipo europeo, che fu infine concessa nel 1876 da ‛Abd ul-Ḥamī´d II (1876-1909), ma subito revocata dallo stesso sultano, che instaurò un regime reazionario e poliziesco. Mustafa Kemal Paşa and his colleagues stepped ashore on 19 May and set up their first quarters in the Mintika Palace Hotel. Suo fondamento ... Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana fondata da Giovanni Treccani S.p.A. © Tutti i diritti riservati. [citation needed], On the 18 March, the Ottoman parliament sent a protest to the Allies. On 23 June, High Commissioner Admiral Calthorpe, realizing the significance of Mustafa Kemal's discreet activities in Anatolia, sent a report about Mustafa Kemal to the Foreign Office. The Maritsa (Turkish Meriç) River would again become the western border of Turkey, as it was before 1914. 00:00 Parte 1 - Presentazione17:29 Parte 2 - I Selgiuchidi, le Crociate e l'inizio dell' Un gioiello barocco è il complesso di Küciük Effendi (1825) a İstanbul, con sala ovale per le danze rituali. ; il tappeto di preghiera ebbe diffusione in Anatolia. While the constitution did not specify a future role of the Sultan, the document gave Kemal ever more legitimacy in the eyes of Turks for justified resistance against the Ottoman Government. La tipologia della moschea di Brussa prosegue anche dopo la conquista di Costantinopoli (Maḥmūd Pasha Giāmi‛, 1464, e Murad Pasha, 1471, a İstanbul; Isḥaq Pasha, 1482, a Inagöl). 1300-1922), il cui nucleo originario si sviluppò nell’Anatolia nord-occidentale dalla dissoluzione del sultanato selgiuchide. La campagna napoleonica in Egitto (1798) disgregò l’autorità imperiale in Africa, fino alla concessione dell’autonomia all’Egitto (1805). Meanwhile, the rest of these forces withdrew behind the British lines which held their position. L’impero bizantino, proprio come quello germanico, stava affrontando particolari difficoltà. ): il tipo di Uşak con medaglione tondeggiante, carico di elementi persiani, ebbe massima importanza nel 16° e 17° sec. With the Italian delegation absent from the Paris Peace talks, Britain was able to sway France in favour of Greece and ultimately the Conference authorized the landing of Greek troops on Anatolian territory. Scatena domande e riflessioni , ed espone le differenti strategie belliche e convinzioni dell’epoca. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. Le conquiste continuarono con slancio nel secolo successivo, soprattutto grazie a due sultani: Selīm I, che sconfisse i Persiani e conquistò Armenia, Siria ed Egitto, distruggendovi lo Stato dei Mamelucchi, e Solimano il Magnifico, che estese il dominio nei Balcani e in Ungheria (giungendo fino alle porte di Vienna nel 1529), nella Penisola Arabica, a Baghdad e in Persia. storia Having this support was important for the national movement.[77]. In March 1920, Turkish revolutionaries announced that the Turkish nation was establishing its own parliament in Ankara under the name of the Grand National Assembly (GNA). A republic was proclaimed on 29 October 1923, in the new capital in Ankara. A couple years later, the name would be changed again by Mustafa Kemal to the Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi), one of Turkey's major political parties as well as its oldest. [69] According to Lord Kinross, through manipulation and the help of friends and sympathizers, Mustafa Kemal Paşa became the Inspector of virtually all of the Ottoman forces in Anatolia, tasked with overseeing the disbanding process of the remaining Ottoman forces. İsmet İnönü was the leading Turkish negotiator. Mustafa Kemal put the representational problems of the Ottoman Parliament on the agenda. In 1923, ADRAR changed its name to the People's Party. Armenia would become an American League of Nations Mandate. The plan was to dismantle Turkish Government organizations, beginning in Istanbul and moving deep into Anatolia. It confirmed the Arab provinces of the empire would be given to Britain and France in the form of Mandates by the League of Nations, while Anatolia would be partitioned between Greece, Italy, French mandatory Syria, British mandatory Iraq, Armenia, and Georgia. Uprising. The commission reported that if annexation would not follow, Greece should not be the only occupation force in this area. On 1 December, British troops based in Syria occupied Kilis. The Bolsheviks demanded that Van and Bitlis be transferred to Armenia. È detto anche letto alla turca o, con parola francese, sommier. Nel 1683 l?Impero Ottomano subì un durissimo colpo, quando il sultano Maometto IV decise di invadere l?Austria, ma venne sconfitto nettamente dalla Lega Santa. On 30 October 1918, the Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I, bringing hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I to a close. Along with this religious decree, the government sentenced Mustafa Kemal and prominent nationalists to death in absentia. Tuttavia questi avvenimenti segnarono anche la fine dell’Impero o.: nel 1922 Kemal depose l’ultimo sultano ottomano, Maometto VI; la proclamazione della Repubblica turca (1923) diede inizio alla storia della moderna Turchia. The Bolsheviks wanted to annex the parts of the Caucasus, including the Democratic Republic of Armenia, which were formerly part of Tsarist Russia. Greece also wanted to incorporate Constantinople to achieve the Megali Idea, but Entente powers did not give permission. [67] Italy sought control over the southern part of Anatolia under the Agreement of St.-Jean-de-Maurienne. The "Trabzon Association for the Defence of National Rights" (Trabzon Muhafaza-i Hukuku Milliye Cemiyeti) was founded in Trabzon by former Unionists, notables, and intellectuals. The Conference of Lausanne began on 21 November 1922 in Lausanne, Switzerland and lasted into 1923. The Franco-Armenian Agreement granted the Armenian claims to Cilicia with the establishment of the French Armenian Legion. On 16 October 1919, Ali Rıza Paşa sent a navy minister, Hulusi Salih Paşa, to negotiate with the Turkish National Movement. He wanted to have a signed protocol between Ali Rıza Pasha and the Committee of Representation based in Sivas. The Sultan's government sent forces under the name of the caliphate army to the revolutionaries and aroused counterrevolutionary sympathy.[76]. [72]The movement of British units alarmed the population of the region and convinced the population that Mustafa Kemal was right. He stated he wanted to free the caliph from the Allies. Dopo un periodo di arresto sotto Bāyazīd I per la disfatta subita ad Ankara (1402) a opera di Tamerlano, la cattura del sultano stesso e la susseguente anarchia, la parabola ascendente riprese, per culminare, sotto Maometto II, nella presa di Costantinopoli (1453), che pose fine all’Impero romano d’Oriente. Con la fine del sultanato selgiuchide di Rum (1300 circa), l'Anatolia fu divisa in una moltitudine di Stati indipendenti, i beilicati turchi d'Anatolia abitati perlopiù da popolazioni nomadi. Per analizzare la caduta dell’impero ottomano molto spesso vengono prese in considerazione unicamente le rivolte dei sudditi imperiali sul versante europeo, dove era andato crescendo il nazionalismo slavo, fenomeno centrale per lo scoppio della grande guerra, la quale causò per l’appunto la caduta dei grandi imperi centrali. Particolare fortuna ebbe un tipo di padiglione, rappresentato dal Çinili Köshk (padiglione delle ceramiche), costruito sotto Mehmet Fātih nel 1466: è a pianta quadrata, preceduto da una veranda (talar); all’interno un corridoio cruciforme, sormontato al centro da una cupola, definisce quattro ambienti angolari. — 434 с. British Indian troops attacked by Turks; thirty wounded and British officer captured-- Warships' guns drive enemy back, Allies occupy Constantinople; seize ministries; Turkish and British Indian soldiers killed in a clash at the War Office, "When Greek meets Turk; How the Conflict in Asia Minor Is Regarded on the Spot - King Constantine's View", "Statistics Of Turkey's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources", "Greeks enter Brussa; Turkish raids go on", "Allies occupy Constantinople; seize ministries", "Turkey, Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–23", "Turkey, Section: Occupation and War of Independence", http://www.armenian-history.com/books/Armenian_legion_Cilicia.pdf, "ANN/Groong -- Treaty of Berlin - 07/13/1878", "Treaty of Lausanne - World War I Document Archive", United States during the Turkish War of Independence, Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Turkish_War_of_Independence&oldid=994439294, Articles with Turkish-language sources (tr), Articles with Greek-language sources (el), Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2010, Articles containing Turkish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2019, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 19 May 1919 – 11 October 1922 (Armistice), This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 18:59. After their defeat by the Turkish revolutionaries the Armenians were no longer a threat to the Nationalist cause. Bakir Sami Bey was assigned to the talks. When the British landed in Alexandretta, Admiral Calthorpe resigned on the basis that this was against the Armistice that he had signed and was assigned to another position on 5 August 1919. авт. 14° e il 20°, fondata dal padre dell'eponimo Osman, Ertoğrul, figura patriarcale di un gruppo di pastori che si pensa appartenessero alla tribù turca dei Kayı.Con Söğüt come loro centro, nell'ultimo quarto del sec. Va ricordata l’arte dei metalli, che accanto a forme e decorazioni tradizionali dell’islam si dimostra esposta, soprattutto nel periodo più tardo, a una pesante e non sempre felice influenza occidentale, e l’arte del gioiello, in cui larga parte ebbe il corallo con effetti di notevole pregio (anche ➔ islam). Fahrî Yâver-i Hazret-i Şehriyâri ("Honorary Aide-de-camp to His Majesty Sultan") Mirliva Mustafa Kemal Paşa was assigned as the inspector of the 9th Army Troops Inspectorate to reorganize what remained of the Ottoman military units and to improve internal security on 30 April 1919. As soon as Greek forces landed in Smyrna, a Turkish nationalist opened fire prompting brutal reprisals. In addition to toppling the British government, the Chanak Crisis would have far reaching consequences on British dominion policy. di Alberto Rosselli. He believed that the sentiments of the Turks "will never accept this annexation". кол. Meanwhile, Allied countries continued to lay claim to portions of the quickly crumbling Ottoman Empire. Many Ottoman officials participated in efforts to conceal from the occupying authorities details of the burgeoning independence movement spreading throughout Anatolia. Armenia : The Survival of a Nation, Christopher Walker, 1980. This attitude of no commitment to the Empire would be a defining moment in Canada's gradual movement towards independence as well as the decline of the British Empire. The Greek campaign of Western Anatolia began on 15 May 1919, as Greek troops began landing in Smyrna. I suoi primordi, nel 14° e 15° sec., vanno ricercati nella produzione dei Selgiuchidi di Rūm e in quella degli emirati formati da quel sultanato. Durante questo lasso temporale gli ottomani prendono Costantinopoli, che ribattezzano Istanbul, e completano la conquista della Romania e dei Balcani Occidentali (Serbia e Bosnia). At least ten students died but the official death toll is unknown even today. The clash outside Izmit brought serious consequences. Greek members of the Ottoman parliament repeatedly blocked any progress in the parliament, and most Greek subjects of the Sultan boycotted the new elections. The Russian government sent a message to settle not only the Armenian but also the Iranian border through diplomacy under Russian control. The British accepted the fact that a nationalist movement could not be faced without deployment of consistent and well-trained forces. La morte di Solimano avviò la disgregazione del potere centrale e sotto i suoi successori ebbe inizio la lentissima decadenza dell’impero, che si accompagnò ancora, però, ad azioni aggressive e guerre contro gli Stati rivali (soprattutto Venezia e Impero asburgico); con l’appoggio delle flotte dei pirati barbareschi vennero minacciati i traffici in tutto il Mediterraneo e furono conquistate Rodi (1522) e Cipro (1570-71), e assediata invano Malta (1565). L’impero bizantino, proprio come quello germanico, stava affrontando particolari difficoltà. La caduta di Costantinopoli, capitale dell’Impero bizantino, nelle mani dei turchi ottomani, è vissuta dal mondo cristiano come una terribile catastrofe paragonabile solo alla caduta dell’Impero romano d’Occidente, avvenuta circa mille anni prima. The famous American author Ernest Hemingway was in Thrace at the time, and he covered the evacuation of Eastern Thrace of its Greek population. La prima “missione” fu pianificata dal professor Jean Brunhes nei Balcani. Neither the Conference of London nor Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol's report changed British Prime Minister David Lloyd George's position. For the promised resources, the nationalists had to wait until the Battle of Sakarya (August–September 1921). By its terms, the Greek army would move west of the Maritsa, clearing Eastern Thrace to the Allies. Mehmet Çavuş became Mehmet Kara according to the Surname Law in 1934. La presenza dello Stato imperiale si manifestò nell’inserire queste moschee sultaniali in grandiosi complessi caritativi e culturali (kulliye), con madrase, ospedali, biblioteche, ospizi, refettori per poveri (innovazione propriamente ottomana), mercati, caravanserragli e la tomba del fondatore. Importante la produzione tessile (broccati di seta, velluti e broccati di velluto di Brussa; velluti di Scutari) e dei tappeti (sin dal 15° sec. Uno di essi si trovava nella zona di Eskişehir, nell'Anatolia occidentale, ed era governato dal bey Osman I (da cui deriva la parola "ottomano"), figlio di Ertuğrul. The British forces opened fire on the nationalists and bombed them from the air. L’impero ottomano La caduta di Costantinopoli Le conseguenze di lungo periodo della conquista ottomana: la “terza Roma” Mosca è nel XV sec. [85] Factors persuading Turkey to sign may have included the arrival of British reinforcements. L’indebolirsi della grande compagine o. era ormai evidente e inarrestabile. [65] As a special body of the Paris Conference, "The Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey" was established to pursue the secret treaties they had signed between 1915 and 1917. Il 31 ottobre del 1448 muore, dopo una lunga malattia, l’imperatoreGiovanni VIII Paleologo che non lascia eredi diretti; così a succedergli è il fratello Costantino, despota della Morea, che in precedenza ha assunto per due volte la reggenza della capitale in assenza del Basileus, recatosi in Occidente nella speranza di risolvere la spinosa questione religiosa. La sconfitta navale subita a Lepanto nel 1571 a opera di un’ampia coalizione europea mise fine al mito dell’imbattibilità dell’Impero o., di cui segnò insieme l’inizio della decadenza marittima; fu comunque compensata in quello stesso anno dalla conquista di Cipro e, poco dopo, dal possesso della Tunisia e dello Yemen. Greek troops first met with these irregulars. The Allies left Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (which remains Turkey's primary legislative body today) declared the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Ma niente valse ad arrestare la decadenza dell’impero o., nonostante l’interessato intervento in suo aiuto delle potenze europee (guerra di Crimea, 1853-56). La caduta dell'Impero ottomano fu l'ultima e più travagliata fase della storia dell'impero e comprende un periodo che va dal 1912 (guerra italo-turca, che portò all'annessione della Libia, al Regno d'Italia, con perdita dell'ultimo possedimento ottomano in Africa, e guerre balcaniche) al 1922 (deposizione dell'ultimo sultano, Mehmet VI, da parte di Mustafa Kemal Atatürk). This show of force by the British had left the Sultan as a puppet and sole political authority of the Empire. In senso ampio, potere assoluto, autorità piena, incontrastata: esercitare un impero dispotico; Nettuno aveva l’impero del mare, Eolo dei venti; più spesso in espressioni... Eponimo e fondatore dello Stato e della dinastia ottomana fu, La morte di Solimano avviò la disgregazione del potere centrale e sotto i suoi successori ebbe inizio la lentissima decadenza dell’impero, che si accompagnò ancora, però, ad azioni aggressive e guerre contro gli Stati rivali (soprattutto, L’indebolirsi della grande compagine o. era ormai evidente e inarrestabile. The nationalist forces were distributed all around Turkey, so many small units were dispatched to face them. Vent’anni dopo il Trattato di Passarowitz (1718) comportò la perdita di parte della Serbia in favore dell’Austria, mentre la Russia cominciava a premere sulle frontiere dell’impero. The conference dragged on far beyond the original expectations. On 16 March 1921, the Bolsheviks and Turkey signed a more comprehensive agreement, the Treaty of Kars, which involved representatives of Soviet Armenia, Soviet Azerbaijan, and Soviet Georgia. The conference opened with representatives from the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Turkey. La caduta dell’Impero Romano d’Oriente avvenne in maniera definitiva con la conquista di Costantinopoli nel 1453 da parte dell’Impero ottomano, guidato dal sultano Maometto II. Descrizione: ottimo riassunto schematico di 20 pagine pdf sulla caduta dell’impero romano d’occidente a cura della zanichelli ricco di schemi, immagini e mappe concettuali: linea del tempo, occidente e oriente a confronto, migrazioni e invasioni barbariche, regni romano-barbarici nel v secolo, impero bizantino, giustiniano, scisma d’oriente. He warned all the nationalist organizations that there would be misleading declarations from the capital. Mustafa Kemal's official response was "Such questions had to be postponed until Turkish independence was achieved." In October, parties to the conference received a report from Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol. The official stance was that there was no use for them. religione Editto di C. Emanato da Teodosio I l’8 novembre 392, mirava alla ... Denominazione con cui si indica solitamente l’Impero Romano d’Oriente, da Bisanzio antico nome della capitale Costantinopoli. [83] However, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, and the British Dominions objected to a new war. Il modello cui si ispirarono gli epigoni di Sinān fu però soprattutto quello della Shāhzāde, caratterizzata da una grande cupola, di particolare leggerezza, che poggia su quattro arconi insistenti su pilastri ottagonali contraffortati da quattro semicupole estendentesi in due esedre, con quattro cupolette angolari. Refet Bele was assigned to seize control of Eastern Thrace from the Allies. Le guerre russo-turche del 1768-1774 e 1787-92 si conclusero con la perdita della Crimea e determinarono l’estensione dell’influenza russa sul Mar Nero e sui Balcani. On 28 May, Greeks landed in Ayvalık, which, since the Balkan Wars, had become a Greek speaking region. [citation needed] They settled around the Aegean coast. They also saw a Turkish Republic as a buffer state or possibly a communist ally. al 1922. Nel 1878 il Congresso di Berlino segnò la fine della presenza ottomana nei Balcani. кол. After the peace agreement with the Turkish nationalists, in late November, a Soviet-backed Communist uprising took place in Armenia. Plans were made to organize a new government and parliament in Ankara, and then ask the sultan to accept its authority. The French delegation, however, did not achieve any of their goals and on 30 January 1923 issued a statement that they did not consider the draft treaty to be any more than a "basis of discussion". [citation needed], Though Ali Rıza Pasha called the elections as per the Amasya Protocol to keep unity between the Istanbul and Ankara governments, he was too hasty in thinking that his parliament could bring him legitimacy. These included parts of its ancestral homeland, Eastern Thrace, the islands of Imbros (Gökçeada), Tenedos (Bozcaada), and parts of Western Anatolia around the city of Smyrna (Izmir). Col trasferimento della capitale dell’Impero a Bisanzio ... İstanbul Città della Turchia (8.831.805 di ab. İnönü maintained the basic position of the Ankara government that it had to be treated as an independent and sovereign state, equal with all other states attending the conference. It was signed in Kars with the Russian SFSR on 13 October 1921[88] and ratified in Yerevan on 11 September 1922.[89]. The parliament was dominated by the ADRAR. Egli fece dell’impero o. una delle più grandi potenze mediterranee e rafforzò il sistema di potere accentrando il comando nelle mani del sultano, del gran visir (primo ministro) e del divano. Capitale dell’Impero bizantino fino al 1453 quando fu conquistata dai Turchi; da allora prevalse il nome İstanbul (➔). La caduta dell’Impero Romano d’Oriente avvenne in maniera definitiva con la conquista di Costantinopoli nel 1453 da parte dell’Impero ottomano, guidato dal sultano Maometto II. On 18 April 1920, the Düzce conflict was extended to Bolu; on 20 April 1920, it extended to Gerede. Mustafa Kemal refused to accept even a temporary Greek presence in Smyrna. Many Ottoman officials organized the secret Sentinel Association (Turkish: Karakol Cemiyeti) in reaction to the policies of the Allies. : О. Дергачов (кер. The Fourteen Points was seen as an incentive to the ADR, if the Armenians could prove that they were the majority of the population and that they had military control over the eastern regions. The movement engulfed northwestern Anatolia for about a month. While officially occupied with the disarming of the army, he had increased his various contacts in order to build his movement's momentum. In addition to Turkey's more favorable land borders compared with Treaty of Sèvres (as can be seen in the picture to the left), capitulations were abolished, the issue of Mosul would be decided by a League of Nations plebiscite in 1926, while the border with Greece and Bulgaria would become demilitarized.